The transformation of the Polish society after 1989 is characterized by multidimensional changes, which refer to various dimensions of social life, including religion. One of the theoretical category used to describe these complex changes is “differentiation”. This theoretical category serves as a analytical tool for the study of religious transformation in Poland. This article aims to describe some elements of religious differentiation in Poland at the turn of the 20th and 21st century. It demonstrates that the “differentiation” is not a simple and uniform process, leading directly to the attenuation and disappearance of religiosity. According to presented statistical data, religious landscape in Poland is characterized rather by the process of polarization. In the article, some socio-political facts of the recent Polish history are reported. These facts explain the specificity of the Polish social polarization, which has strong religious background.